Raticate can't learn fire blast, nor can its pre-evolution.Most Normal types. They have an incredibly wide movepool, yet it makes little sense. Rattata being able to use Fire Blast doesn't make sense.
Considering so many people mentioned surf, I decided to make this list:
Poliwag (It was specifically stated in the manga that it couldn't carry a trainer through water 'till it evolved. Dat's using surf)
Almost every gen6 (inc. Avalugg)
Though I will have to agree with you that it makes no sense that Tauros can learn surf.
How can a bull swim? What sense does that make? Not even Tauros's feet look suitable for swimming.
Just because a Pokémon is weak to water doesn't mean it doesn't know how to swim.
Have you ever heard of the term "conquering your fears"? I think that applies to Pokémon able to learn surf who are weak to water.